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Korean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2005;48(4):867-874.
Published online April 1, 2005.
Usefulness of an Unconjugated Estriol for prediction of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
Jae Hyuk Chang, Yoo A Jung, Ji Woon Han, Min Jung Oh, Sun Haeng Kim, Jae Seong Kang, Kyu Wan Lee, Joong Yol Na
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine Korea University, Seoul, Korea. redobgy@hanmail.net
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common metabolic disorders complicating pregnancy. It is associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy including obstetrical complications such as increased rate of cesarean section, preeclampsia, and birth trauma, and perinatal morbidities, such as macrosomia, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. Therefore, screening for gestational diabetes mellitus and early diagnosis of this condition allows intervention to be carried out, thereby, the reduction of the untoward effects mentioned above can be minimized. But selective screening based on clinical or historic risk factors has been reported ineffective to identify the women with GDM. BACKGROUND: Circulating sex hormones have a role in the development of insulin resistance associated with certain physiological states including hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome. Throughout pregnancy, normal human pregnancy is a hyperestrogenic state of major proportions. To evaluate the clinical correlation between Gestational diabetes mellitus and unconjugated estriol, we used it to screening protocol using three biochemical markers for unconjugated estriol levels. METHODS: In our retrospective between January 2002 and December 2003 at Korea university medical center, 137 women were screened for three biochemical tests and 50 gm Glucose challenge test at second trimester of pregnancy. The 50 gm GCT positive (n=56) women were performed 100 gm oral glucose tolerance test and by NDDG diagnosic criteria, women were diagnosed as Gestational diabetes mellitus (n=42). RESULTS: With logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were family history of DM (odd ration 16.59 95% CI 2.66-103.52), previous macrosomia birth (odd ratio 9.02 95% CI 1.98-41.6), maternal BMI (odd ratio 1.29 95% CI 1.09-1.49), parity (odd ratio 0.31 95% CI 0.11-0.83), glucosuria (odd ratio 0.68 95% CI 0.26-1.76) and among three biochemical test, estriol (odd ratio 1.60 95% CI 0.49-5.27), AFP (odd ratio 1.35 95% CI 0.35-5.28), hCG (odd ratio 0.59 95% CI 0.27-1.28). CONCLUSION: The screening test of GDM would be preferable and intensified management approach needed for patients with obesity, previous macrosomia birth. In three biochemical test, estriol and AFP levels were elevated in GDM but these odd ratio were not statistically significant.
Key Words: Gestational diabetes mellitus, Estriol


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