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Korean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2002;45(5):795-799.
Published online May 1, 2002.
Relation of placental size to large-for-gestational-age infants in women with gestational diabetes mellitus controlled with insulin.
Young Sim Lee, In Bai Chung, Ji Hoon Lim, Heung Sun Lee, Young Jin Lee, Hyun Il Choi
Department of Obsteterics and Gynecology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To determine if the placental size is disproportionately increased in the large-for-gestational age infants in pregnancies complicated by impaired glucose tolerance controlled with insulin. PATIENS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 104 singleton pregnancies complicated by gestational impaired glucose tolerance controlled with insulin. The cases were categorized by the infant birthweight percentile into three groups, i.e. small-for-gestational age (<10(th) percentile), appropriate-for- gestational age (10(th) to 90(th) percentile) and large-for-gestational age (>90th percentile). Maternal and infant anthropometric data, glycemic status, and placental weight-to-birthweight ratio were compared among three groups. RESULTS: The maternal glucose level just after delivery, infant body mass index and placental weight showed a significant increment from the small-for-gestational age to the large-for-gestational age groups (p<0.05). The placental weight-to-birthweight ratio was significantly higher in the small-for-gestational group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the values of the oral glucose test, hemoglobin A1c and maternal body mass index among three groups. Maternal body mass index showed a increasing trend from the small-for gestational age to the large-for-gestational age groups. Placental weight-to-birthweight ratio was not significantly correlate with maternal glucose level. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the placenta is disproportionately bigger, and rigid control of maternal blood glucose does not prevent the development of placental overgrowth. Maternal obesity in well- controlled gestational diabetes mellitus may be more significant than glucose control in the development of large-for-gestational-age infants. Different management strategies for women with gestational diabetes mellitus with different pregravid weights are warranted.
Key Words: birthweight, body mass index, gestational diabetes mellitus, placental ratio


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