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Korean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1998;41(7):1927-1933.
Published online January 1, 2001.
Clinical Diversities and Perinatal Outcomes of Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis.
Suk Joon Chang, Haeng Soo Kim, Jeong In Yang, Eun Joo Ahn, Young Don Lee, Kie Suk Oh
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis has become an important perinatal problem since it was first described in 1943. Although recent advances in antenatal ultrasound have made it possible to detect and manage nonimmune hydrops fetalis in early pregnancy, the perinatal mortality is still high. OBJECTIVE: To obtain clinically useful data regarding antenatal diagnosis, management, and perinatal outcomes of nonimmune hydrops fetalis, and to assist clinicians offer proper antepartum counseling and obstetric management which may be able to improve prognosis. Study design: We retrospectively reviewed 33 cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis delivered in our hospital over a 4-year period. RESULTS: The antenatal diagnosis was possible by ultrasonography in all cases. Accumulation of fluid in fetal serous cavity and generalized skin edema were observed in all cases. A probable etiology was found in 23 (69.7%) cases through ultrasonography, various laboratory studies including fetal karyotyping, and autopsies. These were cardiovascular (4), respiratory (6), chromosomal (4), skeletal (1), and others (8). Despite extensive diagnostic studies, no definite etiology was found in 10 (30.3%) cases. Excluding the ten fetuses delivered after induced abortion, eight infants were born alive and six died in the neonatal period. The mortality rate was 91.3% (21/23). CONCLUSION: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis represents a very poor perinatal outcome. It is suggested that to improve the prognosis, various antenatal and postnatal approaches to find associated etiologic factors should be performed, and intensive perinatal cares are needed.
Key Words: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis, Antenatal diagnosis, Perinatal outcomes


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